Cotton is one of the most important commercial fibers produced and is one of the most important commodity imported and exported all over the world due to their uses in textile industry, mattress and bedding industry, oil industry, soap industry etc. The annual world production of cotton is a staggering 25 million tons, accounting for 2.5% of the world’s arable land. Cultivation of cotton balls is a difficult task in itself and requires a lot of effort and labor. Invention of Cotton ginning process and mechanization has helped the producers to decrease labor and boost the production.
Being the most sought after raw material in the world there is a huge competition between the countries for the commercial production of cotton.
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Here are the top 10 Largest Cotton Producing Countries in The World
Turkmenistan stands 10th in producing cotton in the world. Its annual production is 199,358 metric tons. Cotton is cultivated in half of the country’s irrigated land and it is irrigated by diverting water from Amu Darya river.Ahal, Mary, Chärjew, and Dashhowu are the major cotton producing regions of Turkmenistan. 300 kilograms per citizen being the per capita cotton production, Turkmenistan produces more cotton per capita than any other country in the world and is the important source of income.
Argentina produces 214,371 metric tons of cotton per year grown along the northeastern border of the nation, mainly in the province of Chaco .sowing begins in October and continues through the end of December. Harvest runs from mid-February through mid-July. Though faced with lack of irrigational facilities Argentina manages to increase its production with the introduction of fertilizer in this region by US Military Ambassador of Agriculture Manuel Senor Rojas.
Next on the list is Turkey producing about 853,831tonnes of cotton annually. Turkish government has increased cotton production bonuses in order to encourage production. Better planting techniques and other policies are helping famers achieve higher yields. Increases in the use of certified seeds over the years have also helped increase yields. The crop is grown in three main areas: the Aegean region, Çukurova, and Southeastern Anatolia. Small amounts of cotton are also produced around Antalya.
An estimated amount of 976,475 metric tons of cotton annually. About 495 hectares of land is used in cotton production accounting Australia’s 17% of total farm lands. Mainly Queensland, around Gwydir,Namoi,Macquarie valleys and NSW to the south of McIntyre river. Are the cotton producing regions having almost 1200 farms. Use of advanced seed technology has helped in increase in production per hectare. Cotton farming in Australia provides scope for rural development and improves the viability of 152 rural communities.
Annual production of cotton in Uzbekistan is 1, 053, 74 metric tons. National income of Uzbekistan greatly depends on cotton production because of which Cotton’s nickname in Uzbekistan is “white gold”. The industry is state-controlled on a national level. Over one million public servants, employees of private businesses and children are involved in the harvesting of cotton. Cotton is planted during April-early May and harvested in September. The cotton producing belt lies around periphery of Aydar Lake (near Bukhara) and also to some extent in Tashkent along the Syr Darya.
Brazil produces an estimated amount of 1,639,537 metric tons of cotton per year. Production of cotton has increased lately due to various economic and technological interventions – such as targeted government support, the emergence of new cotton producing regions, and precision farming technologies. The top producing state being Mato Grosso. Brazil is also the third largest exporter in the world.
2,216,932 metric tons of cotton is produced in Pakistan annually. Cotton production is integral to the economic development of Pakistan. Cotton is grown as an industrial crop in 15% of the nation’s land during kharif season which includes the monsoon months May to August. Two provinces of Punjab and Sindh are the prominent regions producing cotton in Pakistan. Usage of better variety of cotton especially BT cotton has enhanced production.
3) United States of America
The total annual production is about 3,598,853 metric tons in the USA. The United States is the second-largest producer and world’s largest exporter of cotton. 17 states of USA are involved in cotton production mainly Southern and western states, dominated by Texas, California, Arizona ,Mississippi , Arkansas , and Louisiana are the major areas for production of cotton fiber employing over 200,000 people in total. Application of high end technology like genetic engineering and nanotechnology are an encouraging development for the growth of cotton.
India producing 5,323,467 metric tons annually stands 2nd in world cotton production. Yield is as high as 504 kgs to 566 kgs per hectare accounting for 27% of the world cotton production. Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Rajasthan are the important cotton cultivating regions. Season of sowing and harvesting varies in India Currently it is grown over 6 per cent of the net sown area. Deep black soils (regur) of the Deccan and the Malwa Plateaus and those of Gujarat are favorable for cotton production.
With the annual production being an astonishing 6,841,593 metric tons China stands first in world production of cotton. Cotton is the prime commercial crop in Charea is Twenty four of the 35 provinces of China grow cotton with nearly 300 million people involved in its production.30 percent of the total sown area is used for cultivation of cotton. The Xinjiang Autonomous Region , the Yangtze River Basin (including provinces of Jiangsu and Hubei), and the Huang – Huai Region (mainly in provinces of Hebei, Henan , and Shandong ) are the main regions involved in cotton production. Special seedling transmulching, plastic mulching, and double cropping of the cotton–wheat are the various methods implemented to boost cotton production which brings China the fame of being the top producer in the world.
Thus this ends the list of top ten cotton producing countries in the world. Since the need for clothing is increasing day by day, even the need for the enchantment in the production of cotton by these countries are expected.